Formation of steam ppt

Apr 15, 2019 enthalpy is a measure of the total energy heat in the steam by reference to a reference state or reference temperature normally chosen to be math0o c. Although most other forms of formation damage have obvious indicators of the problem, the field symptoms of fines migration are much more subtle. The presentation covers educational resource, teacher educational resources, internships, fellowships, mentoring, competitions, and researchdevelopment programs. Ppt steam power plant powerpoint presentation free to. Steam formed at a higher pressure has higher temperature and can be made to flow easily through insulated pipes from steam generator to point of use. Imagine unit mass of ice below the freezing point, enclosed in a cylinder by a piston under a constant load of 1 atmosphere 1 atm. University of zagreb petroleum refining and petrochemical. If so, share your ppt presentation slides online with. Scribd is the worlds largest social reading and publishing site. Imagine unit mass of ice below the freezing point, enclosed in a cylinder by a piston under a. Find powerpoint presentations and slides using the power of, find free presentations research about steam boilers ppt. Superheated steam if more heat is added to dry saturated steam at a constant pressure, increasing its temperature and specific volume. Before going into formation of steam let we understand why steam is being formed produced at constant pressure.

In a heating process, condensate is the result of steam transferring a portion of its heat energy, known as latent heat, to the product, line, or equipment being heated. When the water reached the boiling point of 212f 100c, it changed form and turned into steam. It utilizes heat during the process and carries large quantities of heat later. Steam power plant is the property of its rightful owner. Steam is added to decrease partial pressure of hc and to minimize coke formation. The research included the examination of a ge frame 9fa gas turbine that was experiencing severe varnish effects. This video contains basic introduction of properties of steampure substance. Oxygen attack is accelerated by high temperature and by low ph. Steam, which is gaseous form of pure water, is an excellent working medium in various thermodynamic systems because of its following properties. After watching this video you will be able to understand latent heat of fusion, latent heat of vaporisation, sensible. A less prevalent type of corrosion is alkali attack, which may occur in highpressure boilers where caustic can concentrate in a local area of steam bubble formation because of the presence of. The trap can stick in the closed position, which causes condensate to back up into the steam system. Low quality coal having less gross calorific value, high mineral content, high ash content, and the overfiring of molten slag are causes of clinker formation. Fig 4 steam entrapment and slug formation in a horizontal pipe.

As the fire heated the cauldron, the cauldron shell transferred the heat to the water. Removal of clinkers from the water wall is difficult thus requires pneumatic hammering. At a given pressure, the temperature at which a pure substance changes phase is called. Dipartimento di ingegneria chimica, sapienza universita di roma via eudossiana, 18 00184 roma italy a thermodynamic analysis of the conditions leading to carbon formation on the. He began with a cauldron of water, placed above an open fire. Consider a cylinder fitted with a piston which can move freely upward and downward in it. Khalil department of mechanical power engineering, cairo university, cairo, egypt. Types of steam tlv a steam specialist company international. After passing over the heating surfaces at various zones the flue gas is cooled and discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Thermal energy released by combustion of fuel issued to make steam at the desired temperature and pressure. Steam power plant ppt steam power plant presentations. Steam locomotives were an important early use of the steam engine. Steam nozzles ppt steam nozzles a nozzle is a duct of.

Properties of water and steam thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance based onthe nist steam tables for me209 thermodynamics at iitbombay indian institute of technology bombay 22 july 2016 y. It is the principal industrial method for producing the lighter alkenes or commonly olefins, including ethene or. Liquid enthalpy is the enthalpy heat energy in the water when. Common applications for steam are, for example, steam heated processes in plants and factories and steam driven turbines in electric power plants, but the uses of steam in industry extend far beyond this. The biggest hurdle students face in a maker steam environment can be failing at a project, so its essential that they be encouraged to adopt a. Important terms relating steam formation sensible heat of water hf it is defined as the quantity of heat absorbed by 1 kg of water when it is heated from 0c freezing point to boiling point. Basic thermodynamics is the property of its rightful owner. View and download powerpoint presentations on steam boilers ppt. Hence, plant engineers shouldnt think only leaking steam traps cause energy losses. To show that air and moisture are necessary for the rusting of iron. Usually easily detectable, as this will cause a significant change in the operating conditions. Steam nozzles a nozzle is a duct of smoothly varying cross sectional area, in which a steadily flowing fluid can be accelerated to a high velocity by a drop in pressure of the fluid along the duct. The heating of culture media for continuous sterilization can be done either by injection of steam or by means of heat exchangers.

Steam distillation is a separation process which consists in distilling water together with other volatile and nonvolatile components. Formation of steam at a constant pressure from water. This heat quantity is different for every pressure temperature combination, as shown in the steam table. Formation of black coating of silver sulphide over silver. Process hc feed heated with steam to 1050 oc and fed to crni reactor tubes. Formation of green coating of basic copper carbonate over copper. As a high pressured steam is a good source of energy it can be also used. At low pressure used in many industries like cotton mills, sugar factories, breweries, etc. Steam traps will typically fail in two different ways. What are reasons for clinkers being formed in coal based. Avoiding clinker formation in thermal power plant boilers.

Clinker formation is a serious problem in boilers of thermal power plants which results in forced outage and generation loss. Oct 10, 2016 steam education philosophy can be summarized as. Since the sc reaction is highly endothermic, the reaction is carried out at high temperature. Download a powerpoint here that provides an overview of the departments key stem programs. After watching this video you will be able to understand latent heat. The cfer will provide the designer with supply steam pressures to be. Chapter 4 properties of steam and steam generators. Key global player in steam turbines industry with market leadership position in india, having over 60% market share. An annual steam trap survey and fixing failed steam traps is an essential requirement that shouldnt be compro. The case where the high pressure condensate temperature is higher than the low pressure saturation temperature. If heat is added to the cylinder while keeping the pressure constant, the temperature rises and ice expands until a temperature of 273.

Ppt basic thermodynamics powerpoint presentation free. Ethanol can be manufactured by the hydration of ethene. Hence, it could be used as a working substance for heat engines. Take three test tubes marked 1,2,3 and put iron nails in each of them. In this video you will learn about formation of steam in hindi or formation of sream at constant pressure etc you also learn about formation in hindi how sream is formed in hindi saturated steam. Best practices for steam systems chemical processing. Properties of steam, assessment of steam distribution losses, steam leakages, steam trapping, condensate and flash steam recovery system, identifying opportunities for energy savings. The steam expands the steam expands both in pressure drops completely the fixed and moving blades in nozzles or in the fixed continuously as it flows over blades them the blades have the blades have converging symmetrical profile of aerofoil profile uniform section the steam pressure while the steam pressure while passing over the blades. Thermal steam power plants mainly consists of 4 circuits thermal steam power plants mainly consists of 4 circuits coal and ash circuit coal produced in the mining site is transported to power plant site powerpoint ppt presentation free to view. The maximum steam demand shall be expressed in pounds of steam per hour for both the total connected load and the actual expected maximum sustained demand with an appropriate diversity factor.

Developing steam education to improve students innovative. Environmental education resources to commemorate earth days 50th anniversary. Impulse and reaction principles, compounding, velocity diagrams for simple and multistage turbines, speed regulationsgovernors and nozzle governors. Ppt steam generation, distribution and utilization.

Lecture series on steam and gas power systems by prof. Due to scale formation, overheating of boiler is to be done in order to maintain a constant supply of steam. Used for producing hot water further used for heat installation at low. Steam denotes the inclusion of the arts arts programs must demonstrate the infusion of math andor science concepts and principles in georgia, a stem education program may include curriculum. In cogeneration plants that use part of the steam for process, large and abrupt changes of system control. Sterilization with steam injection is done by injecting steam.

Direct evidence of finesinduced formation damage in production wells is often difficult to come by. Steam and its properties steam is the gaseous phase of water. School implements stem or steam according to guidelines 8. Steam system bureau of energy efficiency 55 syllabus steam system. Also, by discussing some of the delayed coking process problems encountered in the industry, we hope to encourage new advances, solutions, and improvements for the future. At fort wainwright, the pipe slope to c4 is 14 in 10. Electric calorimeter, steam formation, 2d,3d graph, all are included in this ppt. Dec 24, 2016 this video contains basic introduction of properties of steampure substance. Find powerpoint presentations and slides using the power of, find free presentations research about navy steam ppt.

Properties of water and steam thermodynamic properties of. A weight w is placed over the piston so that it exert constant pressure p on water. Stem is the acronym for science, technology, engineering and mathematics stem. Avoiding clinker formation in thermal power plant boilers clinker or slag is a fused mass of noncombustible residue ash from coal. For generating power in steam engines or steam turbines. Some common mechanisms leading to failures in heat recovery steam generators douglas i.

Major steam turbine problems, such as stress corrosion crackingofrotorsanddiscs,corrosionfatigueofblades,pitting, and flow accelerated. Shift supervisor saba power plant steam generator boiler hello, i am trying to explain about steam generator boiler in this session, due to length of said presentation, i am deciding to divide it in three parts. Unc steam system design requirements uncssdr october 2003. Steam cracking is a petrochemical process in which saturated hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller, often unsaturated, hydrocarbons. Cracked poducts exit at 850 oc and are rapidly quenched to 300 oc to prevent secondary reactions. The heat energy enthalpy of evaporation needed by the water at 7 barg to change it into steam is 489. Dixie drive dayton, oh 45414 abstract failures due to flow accelerated corrosion have occurred in the economizers and the low. The saturated steam thus formed is further superheated.

Superheated steam stores more heat than does saturated steam at the same pressure, and the movement of its. In this reaction, ethene which comes from cracking crude oil fractions is heated with steam in the presence of a catalyst of phosphoric. The boiling temperature is 100 at one particular pressure that is 1 atm. How does steam resting atop subcooled condensate in a nearly horizontal line become entrapped. Several visits are made by the district team and state stem coordinator to monitor progress. View and download powerpoint presentations on navy steam ppt. With its history dating back to as early as the first century ad when small steam turbines also known as aeliopile were invented, steam has been the mainstay of many other important steampowered devices even until today. Some important terms liquid that is not about to vaporize, is called compressed liquid.

The formation of a stream valley is a long process. Remote work advice from the largest allremote company. Steam is generated in boilers at constant pressure. The primary function of a steam generator is to generate steam under pressure, but modern steam generators are also required to do the following.

Theoretical description of above figure consider 1 kg of water at 0 degree celsius. Steam education supports students to understand the world in a multidisciplined way, transforming the world in the form of comprehensive innovation, and cultivating their ability to solve problems. Purpose of boiler water treatment is the property of its rightful owner. A vapour that is about to condense is called saturated vapor. Before going into formation of steam let we understand why steam is being formedproduced at constant pressure. Steam has been one of mankinds most important inventions. A weight w is placed over the piston so that it exert constant pressure p. Unit iii unit iii steam nozzles and turbines flow of steam through nozzles, shapes of nozzles, effect of friction, critical pressure ratio,supersaturated flow. Ethanol from ethene alcohols gcse chemistry single. Now if we change the pressure then the boiling temperature also changes.

This, enthalpy of evaporation may be considered as the useful portion of heat in the steam for heating purposes, as it is that portion of the total heat in the steam that is extracted when the steam condenses back to water. Ppt chapter 4 properties of steam and steam generators. Over many years, the stream valley changes and develops due to an aging process. Jun 05, 2017 in this video you will learn about formation of steam in hindi or formation of sream at constant pressure etc you also learn about formation in hindi how sream is formed in hindi saturated steam. Steam generation, distribution and utilization is the property of its rightful owner. The overheating of the boiler tube makes the boiler material softer and weaker and this causes distortion of boiler tube and makes the boiler unsafe to bear the pressure of the steam, especially in highpressure boilers. Condensate is the liquid formed when steam passes from the vapor to the liquid state.

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